Pericles, Prince of Tyre (a Romance)
- the plot is very long and involved, very much like that of Homer's Odyssey
Before the king's palace at Antioch (Syria), the 14th century poet Gower explains that Antiochus (the king) had a daughter by a consort who then died. The father and daughter became sexually involved and he enacted a law that no man can marry her unless he answer Antiochus' riddle, else he die and his head will be hung in the king's courtyard. Prince Pericles arrives to pursue the princess in marriage. He reads the riddle and solves it, determining the answer is, in fact, a person's head. The king, angered that Pericles solved the riddle, lies and says he did not. Antiochus gives Pericles 40 days to get the "right" answer. Fearing for his life, and in disgust at discovering the incest between Antiochus and his daughter, Pericles flees. Antiochus orders his chamberlain, Thaliard, to chase Pericles and kill him. At Pericles' home in Tyre, he laments to his friend Helicanus that Antiochus will go to any length to kill him, even war. Helicanus suggests that Pericles go on holiday to let the king cool off. Pericles agrees and heads to Tharsus. Thaliard arrives in Tyre and overhears the lords discuss Pericles' departure. He shows himself, saying he has a message for Pericles. Meanwhile, at Tharsus, the governor, Cleon, laments to his wife Dionyza how their city is in ruins due to famine. Pericles arrives and brings corn and other food to help the town, in return for letting him stay there, bringing great joy.
Gower appears again and explains that Helicanus sends word to Pericles that Thaliard is searching him out to kill him. Pericles flees to the sea with his men and is caught in a storm which wrecks his ship and kills all but him. He washes up on the shore of Pentapolis in Greece and is found by three fisherman, who he convinces to help him. In their fishing net the find Pericles' armor. He plans to use it to enter a jousting contest to win the hand of King Simonides' daughter, Thaisa. At the joust, Pericles wins the day. At dinner, Thaisa and Pericles fall in love. Back in Tyre, Helicanus explains to Escanes that the gods have killed Antiochus and his daughter by fire, ending their incestuous relationship. Three lords appear and ask Helicanus' permission to seek out Pericles; he grants it. Back at Pentapolis, Simonides tells the knights that Thaisa will not wed for a year, and immediately all leave. This is just a ploy to gt rid of them, though, since Thaisa wishes to wed Pericles, and Simonides and Pericles agree.
Gower appears to explain that the two are married and Thaisa becomes pregnant. A letter arrives from the lords of Tyre saying Pericles must return home within 12 months, lest mutiny ensue. Pericles, pregnant Thaisa, and her nurse Lychordia set sail for Tyre and again are caught in a storm, causing Thaisa to go into labor and deliver a daughter, who Pericles names Marina; however, Thaisa dies of complications during the labor. As is custom, she is buried at sea in a chest, and Pericles includes a note with her body asking that she be properly buried if found. Pericles decides to stop off at Tharsus to leave the baby so as not to endanger it in the voyage back to Tyre. Later, at Cerimon's house in Ephesus, two servants bring in a chest that was tossed on up the shore. It holds Thaisa and Pericles' note. Cerimon, however, uses an Egyptian ritual to restore life to her. Meanwhile, at a now prosperous Tharsus, Pericles stays 12 months with his daughter, then returns to Tyre, leaving Marina and Lychordia with Cleon and Dionyza. At Ephesus, Thaisa decides that since she'll never see Pericles again, she'll lead the life of a vestal virgin (i.e., a nun).
Gower appears to tell us that Marina has grown up and befriended Cleon's daughter, Philoten. Dionyza, however, is angry that Marina is more beautiful than Philoten, and plots with Leonine to kill Marina. Mourning her nurse's death, Marina meets Dionyza who instructs her to walk with Leonine. He tries to kill her, even after she objects, but is interrupted by the pirates of Valdes who kidnap her. At Mytilene, the pirates sell Marina to a brothel, run by a Bard and her servant Boult. At Tharsus, Dionyza informs Cleon of Marina's supposed death and instructs him to tell no one the truth. They plan to claim Marina died in her sleep. Gowen then tells us Pericles sails to Tharsus with Helicanus to see his daughter, Marina, only to discover she is "dead". Pericles vows to never wash his face or cut his hair again, and departs for the sea, leaving Escanes in chard at Tyre. At the brothel, Marina refuses to sleep with any man, and, in fact, she converts many of them to good. She even convinces the doorman Boult to convince her masters to let her change professions, using gold she had procured from the local governor (Lysimachus).
Gower appears and explains that Marina now teaches music and educates the nobles' children, giving the profits to the Bawd. Pericles, now arrives at Mytilene, though actually, Helicanus leads the ship while Pericles hides, in grief, in the hold. Lysimachus (the Governor of Mytilene) greets them and tries to cheer up Pericles, to no avail. He suggests they have Marina try to cheer him up (not knowing she is Pericles' long lost daughter). She arrives and sings to him, causing him to speak and ask of her origins. She explains she is Marina, the daughter of a king, born at sea, her mother died, and she was raised by a nurse Lychordia at Tharsus. Pericles, though refusing to believe her at first, comes to realize she really is his daughter and rejoices. The Goddess Diana appears to Pericles in a dream and instructs him to go to Ephesus, where he will be made happy. Further, Lysimachus informs Pericles of his desire to woo Marina. Gower tells us of Pericles' journey to Ephesus. There, Pericles and Thaisa are united by Cerimon, and Marina is able to meet her mother. Pericles decrees that Thaisa and he will live in Pentapolis, since Thaisa's father Simonides has recently died, while Marina and Lysimachus will reign in Tyre. Gower closes by reviewing the play's morals and telling us the townspeople of Tharsus burn Cleon and his wife Dionyza in their palace as punishment for plotting to kill Marina.
Before the palace of Antioch
To sing a song that old was sung,
From ashes ancient Gower is come;
Assuming man's infirmities,
To glad your ear, and please your eyes.
It hath been sung at festivals,
On ember-eves and holy-ales;
And lords and ladies in their lives
Have read it for restoratives:
The purchase is to make men glorious;
Et bonum quo antiquius, eo melius.
If you, born in these latter times,
When wit's more ripe, accept my rhymes.
And that to hear an old man sing
May to your wishes pleasure bring
I life would wish, and that I might
Waste it for you, like taper-light.
This Antioch, then, Antiochus the Great
Built up, this city, for his chiefest seat:
The fairest in all Syria,
I tell you what mine authors say:
This king unto him took a fere,
Who died and left a female heir,
So buxom, blithe, and full of face,
As heaven had lent her all his grace;
With whom the father liking took,
And her to incest did provoke:
Bad child; worse father! to entice his own
To evil should be done by none:
But custom what they did begin
Was with long use account no sin.
The beauty of this sinful dame
Made many princes thither frame,
To seek her as a bed-fellow,
In marriage-pleasures play-fellow:
Which to prevent he made a law,
To keep her still, and men in awe,
That whoso ask'd her for his wife,
His riddle told not, lost his life:
So for her many a wight did die,
As yon grim looks do testify.
What now ensues, to the judgment of your eye
I give, my cause who best can justify.